Regionalized nitrogen fate in freshwater systems on a global scale

  • Excessive nitrogen (N) use in agriculture, together with industry and household waste, is releasing N throughout the environment, causing eutrophication in both freshwater and coastal areas.


  • To contextual-ize the environmental impacts of N-induced eutrophication with other environmental impacts, improvements in the measures of N fate factors (FF) are required. Here, we present a method to estimate grid-ded FFs based on the IMAGE-GNM model to provide eutrophication indicators for global manufacturing, trade, and consumption in life cycle assessments (LCAs).