Sensor technologies for detection of urine patches in livestock-grazed pastures
- Urine patches in grazed pastures are
hotspots for nitrogen (N) losses through leaching and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions.
- A New Zealand designed ground-based sensing machine, Spikey®, can detect urine patches through spiked disks.
- The disks, acting as electrodes, measure the change in soil conductivity caused by urine deposition.