Sensor technologies for detection of urine patches in livestock-grazed pastures

  • Urine patches in grazed pastures are
    hotspots for nitrogen (N) losses through leaching and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions.


  • A New Zealand designed ground-based sensing machine, Spikey®, can detect urine patches through spiked disks.


  • The disks, acting as electrodes, measure the change in soil conductivity caused by urine deposition.