Trends in nitrogen induced costs due to impacts on human health, climate and ecosystems

This review paper illustrates the various impacts and interactions of inputs of reactive nitrogen on human health, climate and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Europe, through impacts on air quality, greenhouse gases, soil quality and water quality.

It focuses on a quantification of trends in threats, in terms of exceedances of critical thresholds, during the period 1990-2015. A cost-benefit analysis shows that environmental costs of reactive N release to the environment are substantial and tend to exceed the direct economic benefits for agriculture during this period. This provides a strong support for European N policies and stricter N emission targets.